Roofing Terms and Explanations
Asphalt - an organic bituminous compound used in the manufacturing of composition shingles.
Asphalt Roofing Cement - used to bond roofing materials, also known as flashing cement or mastic
ASTM - American Society for testing of Materials. A voluntary organization concerned with the development of standards, testing procedures, and specifications. Many city building codes use ASTM standards.
Base Flashing - the portion of the flashing which is attached to, or rest on the roof deck.
Blend- mixtures of various colored granules on the surface of shingles.
Blind Nailing - nails driven in such a way that the heads are concealed by succeeding layers of roofing materials.
Blisters - bubbles that may appear on the surface of asphalt roofing.
Bridging - a method of reroofing where the new shingles follow the contour of the old roofing. Also called "butting up". It is almost always desirable to tear off old roofing.
Built-Up Roofing - a flat or low sloped roof made up of layers of asphalt and ply sheets. (AKA BUR)
Butt - the portion of the shingle exposed to the weather, sometimes called the "tab" of the shingle.
Cant Strip - a 45 degree beveled wood, fiberboard, or metal strips at the junction of the roof and a vertical surface used to break a right angle. Primarily used in low sloped roofing.
Cap Flashing - flashing on a vertical surface to prevent the flow of water from getting behind the base flashing. The cap flashing overlaps the base flashing. This flashing (AKA counter flashing) is generally not changed in a reroofing job.
Caulk - a substance used to fill a joint or void.
Cement - a substance, when cured, binds to surfaces together.
Class "A" - the highest fire resistance rating for roofing as per ASTM E-108. Shingle with this rating should withstand severe exposure to fire from sources originating outside the building. Other classed are B and C.
Closed Valley - when roofing materials cover the entire valley. Unless otherwise requested, Bert Roofing Inc. primarily installs closed valleys.
Coating - a layer of viscous asphalt applied to shingles in which granules are embedded.
Collars - pre-formed flange placed over a vent pipe. (AKA vent sleeve) There are two types, lead jacks and rubber boots.
Counter Flashing - see Cap Flashing.
Course - a horizontal unit of roofing running the length of the roof.
Cricket - a small peaked saddle constructed on the top of the basic roof and behind the chimney. A cricket is generally not required.
Cupola - a structure rising above the main roof. It is usually ornamental, but may be used for ventilation.
Dead Level - a roof or section of roof without any pitch.
Deck - the material installed over the framing of a structure on which shingles are installed. The primary materials are Oriented Strand Board (OSB) and cdx Plywood.
Double Coverage - a method of applying roof shingles so that two complete layers of material are provided.
Dormer - a window unit projecting through the sloping plane of the roof.
Drip Edge - usually metal strip used on eves and rakes to allow for water run off without damaging underlying materials
Drip Course - the first course of shingles that slightly overhangs the edge.
Eave - the horizontal edge of a roof that projects over the outside wall.
Exposure - the portion of the shingle that is exposed to the weather. usually measured from the butt of one shingle to the butt of the next overlapping shingles.
Lap - the overlap of surface of one roofing material to another.
Laminated Shingles - shingles containing more than one layer of tabs creating extra thickness. (AKA dimensional or architectural)
Lock Shingles - a shingles with a mechanical locking feature. These are not common.
Low Slope Application - method of applying shingles on slopes between 2 and four inches per foot.
Mansard Roof - a vertical portion of roofing.
Mastic - see asphalt roof cement.
Nesting - see bridging
Normal Slope Application - method of installing shingles between 4 and 21 inches per foot.
Open Valley - valley in which metal is used and roofing material does not cover entire valley area as in a Closed Valley.
Saturant - asphalt used to impregnate felt for waterproofing and strength.
Seal Down - a factory applied asphalt strip used to bond a shingle to the one above. This is used to provide wind resistance.
Sheathing - exterior grade boards used as a roof deck.
Side Lap - a horizontal lap
Skirt Flashing - A large often single piece of flashing commonly found at the bottom of a dormer or addition.
Slope - the degree of incline of a roof plane.
Soffit - the finished underside of an eave.
Soffit Vent - An under eve opening needed for intake of outside air. These are not part of a typical roofing job, but are needed for good attic ventilation.
Soil Stack - a vent pipe that penetrates the roof.
Span - the horizontal measurement from eave to eave.
Spire - a tower of roof tapering up to a point.
Square - a unit of roof measurement covering 100 square feet.
Square Butt Shingles - generally three tab 20 year shingles - not laminated.
Starter Course - the first course of shingles installed on your roof. It will be under the first exposed row. Often these shingles are 20 year three tab shingles. So as to not create an awkward hump, these are used even when heavier laminated shingles are installed.
Step Flashing - flashing along a roof slope against a wall or chimney using succeeding courses of flashing material placed in conjunction with layers or courses of roofing materials. Step Flashing is generally in 4 by 4 by 8 inch pieces.
Tab - portion of strip shingles defined by cut outs or slots so when installed, material appears to be individually applied.
Underlayment - an asphalt saturated felt applied over the roof deck and under the roofing material.
Valley - the intersection of two roof slopes.
Vent - an outlet for air
Weathering - changes in color, texture or efficiency brought about by exposure to outside elements
ARTICLES ON ROOFING
When it comes to home improvement, it doesn't always pay to take the cheaper option.
In fact sometimes it's a losing venture when you find yourself making expensive repairs or replacements down the road because the cheaper option didn't hold up.
And sometimes you'll find that you can save more in the long run by spending more up front.
This is certainly the case when it comes to choosing metal roofing versus asphalt shingles for your home.
While metal roofing costs more money to purchase and install compared to asphalt shingles, you can save a significant amount over the long life of the roof.
What Makes Asphalt Shingles So Inexpensive?
There is a reason why asphalt shingle roofs are a cheaper roofing option compared to metal roofs, they are simply an inferior product. Here are some of the ways that asphalt shingles under-perform vs metal roofing :
1. Material - asphalt shingles are susceptible to corrosion and algae growth and are capable of tearing and flying away during heavy winds and rain. Plus, they can weigh five times more than metal panels per square, putting more strain on the foundation and structure of your home.
2. Warranty - asphalt shingle warranties are generally limited and in some cases don't even cover necessary repair or replacement
3. Energy Efficiency - asphalt shingles absorb heat from the sun, transferring that heat directly into your home during the hot summer months, forcing your cooling unit to work on overdrive, and sending your home energy bills sky high.
4. Environmental Impact - asphalt shingles contribute a significant amount of landfill waste every year since they have a shorter life span and need to be replaced more often.
And because of their tendency to absorb heat, they contribute to the urban heat island effect, pollution, smog, and overall energy consumption.
Is Metal Roofing Worth the Investment?
Metal Roofing is a superior roofing product compared to asphalt shingles and is worth its value in terms of protection for your home, long life expectancy of the roof, a transferable Limited Lifetime Warranty, and pure aesthetic curb appeal.
Here are some of the ways that metal roofing out-performs asphalt shingles:
1. Material - certain metal roofing systems, such as the MetalMan Roofing System from Advanced Metal Roofing, are constructed from galvalume sheet metal, a durable material that is corrosion resistant, long lasting and low maintenance, and has a high heat reflectivity to help save energy.
2. Warranty - some metal roofing comes with limited Lifetime Warranties that last as long as you live in your home and help protect your investment.
3. Energy Efficiency - metal roofing reflects more of the sun's heat energy, preventing excess heat from transferring into the attic and helping to lower homeenergy consumption.
4. Environmental Impact - metal roofing is one of the most recycled materials on earth, saving waste from entering our landfills and recyclable after its long life span. And because of its tendency to reflect the sun's rays, it helps to prevent smog and the urban heat island effect, and ultimately reduce the need for burning fossil fuels by saving on energy consumption.
Roof Insulation Makes Your Home More Comfortable
If you are considering taking the plunge and having your home insulated, you may want to consider roof insulation. Just what is roof insulation? It is a product that lives up to its name, and could be called the hidden insulation, because many people do not even know that the outside form of it exists.
They do research about the best kind of insulation for their home, and make a choice without becoming informed about roof insulation.
Roof insulation works silently to make your living space more comfortable. It has been tested and found to reduce the overall cost of heating your house by an astonishing 13%!
This type of insulation can also help to keep your house a great deal cooler during the summer months. That can add up to a nice amount of money in a few years time, perhaps even enough to pay for your roof insulation and installation!
There are two types of roof insulation. One of these types goes on the outside of your home in the area between the roof’s shingles or tiles, and the sheathing used on top of the rafters as a place for the roofing.
Normally, a type of foam board is stapled to the sheathing, and the roofing material is then installed on top of the foam board. This gives you a layer of protection from hot and cold air drifting into your home’s attic and then into your living space.
Rigid fibreglass insulation can also be used for this purpose. It is a lot easier to install this type of insulation when you are also replacing your roof shingles or tiles, but it can definitely be used on a roof that is already in place or a flat roof as well.
It may only be necessary to place roof insulation in your attic space, which some contractors will call loft insulation. This is the more common type of roof insulation, and you will find that more people have heard of this alternative.
Rafter vents are needed to keep any build up of moisture from getting the insulation wet. Once this has been accomplished, the space between the rafters can then be filled with insulation.
Spray foam insulation is one choice that the homeowner has for roof insulation in their attic space. A smaller attic, such as one you cannot stand up in, is a good candidate for this type of insulation. Professionals spray the foam into all the spaces, cracks, and crevices, and it does an excellent job of keeping out air.
Another type of attic roof insulation is that familiar pink coloured roll that looks a bit like a huge roll of carpet.
These are known as batts, and are usually made of fibreglass, but can also be made from rock wool. The pink batts are flexible, and it is easy to cut and fit them into the needed spaces.
It is best to leave this type of installation to a professional, for fibreglass can be rather tricky to work with. It is easy to get some of the fibres embedded into your ski, or even in your eyes.
As you might imagine, this is quite painful, and potentially dangerous to your eyesight. There is also the risk of breathing in the glass fibres.
The various types of roof insulation that are available will make your home a comfortable place to live, whether it is winter or summer.